1.  Survey Methodology:

The proposed methodology includes a participant and a non-participant observation with the villagers and community members. The initial set of actions was involved by building trust and rapport to understand their norms and beliefs. The next course of action was data collection (both primary and secondary). The data collection tools included were survey questionnaire, unstructured interviews and focused group discussions (for primary data); book of records, block level/district level/state level data and census which was used as secondary sources. The survey questionnaire schedule consisted of both open and close ended questions with random sampling to record the observations. Interaction with the village Sarpanch, ASHA workers, Primary Health Care (PHC) centers, Anganwadi members et al gave necessary insights about the prevailing situations in the village.

2.  RLLE Footprint:

The distribution of location of all the students of RLLE is mentioned in the Picture 1.

Picture 1: Rural Living and Learning Experience locations across India

3.  Sample set

The survey is conducted in 65 villages of 15 states across India with the sample size of 1950 households. (Refer Figure 1)

Figure 1:Distribution of samples across the states

4.  Sanitation

According to World Health Organization (WHO), Sanitation refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. It also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.”

The history of sanitation in India has come through various stages like:

  • Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.
    • CRSP became “Total Sanitation Campaign” (TSC) with effect from 1999 which emphasized more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities.
    • In upgrading TSC, Government of India also launched the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) that sought to recognize the achievements and efforts made in ensuring full sanitation coverage.
    • By the success of NGP, TSC is renamed to “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan”
    • Along with the above program, there has been addition of the objective Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) which is based on the principle of triggering collective behavior change which is carried out by the facilitators from within or outside the community.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) by Ministries of Drinking Water and Sanitation (for Gramin) and Ministry of Urban Development (for Urban) were the two mission carried out by the Government of India.

In our survey, we had quantified the behavioral aspect of people using the toilet by determining whether people of the household prefer “Independent latrine, Community Latrine and Open Defecation”. Government of India had announced that India is 100% Open Defecation Free (ODF) on October 02, 2019.

The survey that has been taken during November-December 2018 has given the following figures. The confirmation or India being ODF free would be realized based on the survey result which are to be obtained by the batch 2019-21.

  • % of households with open defecation: 37.6% from 1920 households on November – December 2018.

The distribution of the household that open defecate across different states surveyed is given in the Figure 2

Figure 2: Open Defecation across India

The distribution of the household that open defecate across different states and social category that is being surveyed is given in Figure 3


Figure 3: Open Defecation across India for different social category

5.  Availability of Meals

Global Hunger Index has defined hunger in the following way:

Figure 4: Global Hunger Index Composition
Source: Wiesmann et al. (2015)

India has ranked 93 in 2015 whereas it is now ranked at 102 in the year 2019 among 117 countries. Our findings is based on a question that, “In a given year, have you gone to sleep without having meals because of the economic condition”.

The results are:

  • % of households without all meals throughout the year: 5.44% from 1950 households.
Figure 5: NFHS survey
Figure 6: Non-Availability of all meals per day throughout the year across India
Figure 7: Non-Availability of all meals per day throughout the year vs Social Category

6.  Pucca House

  • % of households without a pucca house: 62.66% from 1950 households

Without a pucca house refers to semi-pucca and kuccha houses which is defined in the following way:-

  • Pucca (More than 2 living rooms with well made roof, walls and flooring)
  • Semi-Pucca (Houses that are not pucca and Kuccha) (i.e. 1 living room with proper flooring and roof; 2 living room with thatched roof (or) not a proper roof and flooring)
    • Kuccha (1 living room without proper roof (and) floor (and) walls)
Figure 8: Household with Non-Pucca Houses

The survey result shows that after Scheduled tribe, OBC has the second highest poor housing conditions vulnerable to the external climatic conditions.

Pucca House Kutcha House 


7.  Primary Occupation

The primary occupation across the sampled households widely varies into the following categories:- Agricultural Labor, ASHA worker, Basket Making, Cultivation, Government Job, Livestock Rearing, Non agricultural labor, Non-Timber Forest Produce and the other private jobs.

Figure 9: Primary Occupation
  • The result shows that cultivation is the dominant occupation of all the states except in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
  • In the states like Andhra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh where the cultivation is not a dominant occupation, the dominant occupation is non-agriculture labor. Of the states mentioned above only in Uttarakhand, the private job is more.
  • Livestock rearing was in considerable number in Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan
Figure 10: Primary Occupation across Social Category

Most of the non-agricultural labor in Gujarat is predominantly ST population. The share of ST population in government job is very low across India and it is majorly in Andhra, Manipur and Rajasthan.

8.  Access to farmland

Figure 12: Access to farmland

The access to farmland across various states are given below:

Bihar Chhatisgarh Manipur

9. Highest Produced Crops

The crops are categorized in the following way:

Crop Categories Crops
Fiber Crops Cotton, B.T Cotton, Jute,
  Legumes and Pulses Moong, Legumes, Peas and Seasame, Chana, Groundnut, Pulses, Chara, Red Gram(Tuar), Urad
Maize or Corn Corn, Maize
Millet Millet, Horse Gram, Jowar, Bajra, Ragi
  Other Cash Crops Sugarcane, Castor, Sunflower, Oil Seed, Betel Leaves, Coffee, Rubber, Cashew.
Paddy and Wheat Paddy, Wheat
Spices Cardamom, Pepper, Chilli, Mustard
  Vegetables and Fruits Vegetables, Potato, Kochu, Okra, Pumpkin, Pomegranate, Banana, Tapioca, Onion, Brinjal, Orange, Kosla, Tomatoes, Sangri
Figure 13: Highest produced crops of the villages across India vs social category
Figure 14: Highest produced crops of the villages across India for all the states

10.  Dominant Water Source

The drinking water source has been categorized into:

  • Safely Managed (Drinking water from an improved water source located on premises, Available when needed and free of faecal and priority contamination)
  • Basic (Drinking water from an improved water source, provided collection time is not more than 30 minutes for a round trip, including queuing)
  • Limited (Drinking water from an improved water source, provided collection time is more than 30 minutes for a round trip, including queuing)
  • Unimproved (Drinking water from an unprotected dug well or unprotected spring)
  • Surface Water (Drinking water directly from a river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, or irrigation channel)

Improved Water Source means Piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, rainwater, and packaged drinking water or delivered water.

The survey results had given us the following types that is being categorized into the following:

Categories Type
  Basic Community Tank, Community Tap, Naula, Panchayat Water Supply, Public Tank, Reserver Tank
Limited DI Vehicles, Govt. specified sources
Safely Managed Borewell, Handpump, Pipeline, Pump, Rainwater, Supply water, Tap, Water Jar.
Surface Water Gram Panchayat Pond, Pond, River, Stream
Unimproved Openwell, and Others

11. Borewell Irrigation

  • % of households with borewell irrigation: 18.31% from 1158 households.
  • There are a total of 8.78 million dugwells in 661 districts of the country irrigating 16.8 million ha of land. In dugwells, pucca dugwells have a majority share of 67%, kutcha dugwells (21%), dug-cum borewells (10%) and others (2%). Dug-cum borewell has recorded an increase from 4% in 4th Census to 10% in 5th census.

Source: Ministry of water resource and river development

12. Bank Account and the type of debt

  • 84.23% have bank account from 1389 households
  • 57.05% of the households from 1168 households have formal, informal or both type of loans.
    • Formal sources include Commercial bank, Regional Rural Bank, Cooperative Society, SHG
    • Informal Sources include money lender, friends and relatives

The latest edition of the Global Findex (GFX), which came out in 2017, shows that 515 million adults worldwide opened an account at a financial institution or through a mobile money provider between 2014 and 2017. This means that 69% of adults globally now have an account, up from 62% in 2014, and 51% in 2011. In high-income economies, 94% of adults have an account; in developing economies the figure is 63%. India’s GFX was 35 in 2011, 53 in 2014, and 80 in 2017. GFX 2017 stands at 80 for China (79 in 2014), 76 for Russia, 70 for Brazil, 69 for South Africa, 96 for UK, and 93 for US.

Source: Ideas for India

  • 36.68% of the formal debtors are from bank account holders.
  • 8.20% of the informal debtors have bank accounts.

13. Electricity

  • % of households without electricity: 5.69% from 1916 households

Government had announced 99.9% of electrification across India but our result on December 2018 shows that there is still 5.69% of electricity connection is yet to be given.

14. Alternative Source of Energy

  • % of households with alternate electricity as a backup: 43.89% from 1048 households

15. Working women

45.28% of household doesn’t have a women working in their household


I. Summary

Indicator % of Households Number of households surveyed
Household which have open defecation (Behavioral aspect of open defecation) 37.6% 1950
Household which did not have all the meals each day all throughout the year. 5.44% 1950
Household without pucca houses 62.66% 1950
Households with borewell irrigation 18.31% 1158
Households without electricity connection 5.69% 1916
Households with alternate electricity as a backup 23.59% 1950